USB Host (big type A jack): 20MB/s writing to a Seagate USB3 2TB portable (spinning) hard disk (required plugging a 5V 4A power supply into the BeagleBone Black's power jack). On BeagleBone Green, I got corruption with the Seagate disk, even when I powered the board from a bench supply. With this Samsung 64GB USB flash drive I get 14-18MB/s write on both BeagleBone Green and Black.
Disk: 4.3MB/s writing to onboard flash, and 7.1MB/s to a SanDisk Ultra 64GB microSD card. On BeagleBone Green, I get 9.4MB/s to onboard flash, and 6.8MB/s to the same SanDisk microSD card.
Network: Using netcat with the USB ethernet interface, I get 7.6MB/s upstream (to my laptop). With the 100baseT jack I get 11.2MB/s upstream. If I use ssh with its default cipher, I get about 10MB/s, but that goes back up to 11.1MB/s if I use "-c arcfour".
Compression: gzip -1 gives me 4.1MB/s on text generated by "cat /dev/urandom data | od -x". I tried lz4 as well and it was almost exactly the same speed.